The Editors. Each this is not to say or in other words a dull sword wielded against willful misunderstanding. Published in Issue Bad Faith. Publication date Fall Have editors ever known so much about their readers? And known, in particular, how little and how badly they read? Today even the Weekly Standard and Democracy: A Journal of Ideas announce up front how long it takes to get through one of their online articles, like a warning, or a dare to cull the weak.
Twitter, meanwhile, is a scrolling record of bad reading habits. The author, a reader herself, knows all about bad reading habits. The intimacy between online writers and readers determines how we read and write. As late as the s, despite the lurid fan pages and dank chat rooms of the early internet, there was presumed to be a gulf between these two constituencies. Even with Fox News ascendant and internet news ever more dominant, mass media institutions remained monolithic enough to manufacture consent.
The first decade of the 21st century was a transitional one in terms of reader-writer relations, its habits now as foreign as those of Edward R. Gone are the happy days when we dialed up to submit a comment to S alon. Back then, we could not have imagined feeling nostalgic for the blogosphere, a term we mocked for years until we found it charming and utopian. Blogs felt like gatherings of the like-minded, or at least the not completely random.
On social media, criticism once confined to the comments now comes as free-range abuse directed at other readers. And so writers who publish online peer into the fishbowl of readerly reception.
Drop in some flakes and watch the fish swarm. All this is on your mind as you wait for your piece to go up. Will you retweet praise, or only muted endorsements, detailed enough not to appear self-congratulatory? Or will your piece disappear like all the others, carried along the swift-moving current of the social feed only to be buried in the riverbed and ignored forever? But just when despair has reached its peak, it shows up on the homepage. People tweet lines from your story, or screenshot whole paragraphs, taking care to highlight certain sentences.
Not the sentences you would highlight, but people care! They not only read your writing, you see; they want to show others that they read it. Your writing is a badge of intellect. Then things take a turn. The space grows for misinterpretation, co-optation, and misunderstanding. All it takes is one podcast host with a grudge and a modest following, like an Evangelical pastor of yore, for a small hell to break loose in your mentions.
Your authorial control disintegrates. Does anyone enjoy watching themselves get eaten and digested by other people? But he soon grew wary of the ongoing attempt to pin the entire debacle on Russian trolls. He tweeted a clip of his appearance on All In with Chris Hayesin which he questioned the effectiveness of the operations. The tweet went viral, in the process laying bare the negative correlation on social media between exposure and control.
Their reactions can be glib, disingenuous, mocking, cruel, pedantic, self-righteous, derogatory. To assail an author without increasing the number of his readers is the perfection of journalistic skill, and The Currenthad it stood alone, would fully have achieved this end.
As it was, silence might have been better tactics. But Mr Fadge knew that his enemy would smart under the poisoned pin-points, and that was something gained.Native Americans are unquestionably victims of environmental racism. The Commission for Racial Justice found that about 50 percent of all American Indians live in communities with uncontrolled hazardous waste sites Asian Pacific Environmental Network For Native American tribes, the issues can be complicated—and their solutions hard to attain—because of the complicated governmental issues arising from a history of institutionalized disenfranchisement.
Unlike other racial minorities in the United States, Native American tribes are sovereign nations. Some instances of environmental damage arise from this crossover, where the U.
Other significant contributors to environmental racism as experienced by tribes are forcible removal and burdensome red tape to receive the same reparation benefits afforded to non-Indians. In yet another case, members of the Chippewa near White Pine, Michigan, were unable to stop the transport of hazardous sulfuric acid across reservation lands, but their activism helped bring an end to the mining project that used the acid Environmental Justice Case Studies These examples are only a few of the hundreds of incidents that American Indian tribes have faced and continue to battle against.
How might the work of sociologists help draw attention to—and eventually mitigate—this social problem? Why does environmental racism exist?
The New Reading Environment
The reason is simple. Those with resources can raise awareness, money, and public attention to ensure that their communities are unsullied. This has led to an inequitable distribution of environmental burdens. Chemical plants, airports, landfills, and other municipal or corporate projects are often the subject of NIMBY demonstrations.
And equally often, the NIMBYists win, and the objectionable project is moved closer to those who have fewer resources to fight it. The water crisis in Flint, Michigan is a textbook case of environmental racism. NIMBY protests occur when concerned citizens band together to speak up against something that will impact them negatively. Is this a positive or negative trend?
What types of municipal projects often result in environmental racism? Show Glossary. Skip to main content. Module Population, Urbanization, and the Environment. Search for:. Reading: Environmental Racism Environmental Racism Environmental racism refers to the way in which minority group neighborhoods populated primarily by people of color and members of low socioeconomic groups are burdened with a disproportionate number of hazards, including toxic waste facilities, garbage dumps, and other sources of environmental pollution and foul odors that lower the quality of life.
All around the globe, members of minority groups bear a greater burden of the health problems that result from higher exposure to waste and pollution. This can occur due to unsafe or unhealthy work conditions where no regulations exist or are enforced for poor workers, or in neighborhoods that are uncomfortably close to toxic materials.
The statistics on environmental racism are shocking. His research found, for example, that African American children are five times more likely to have lead poisoning the leading environmental health threat for children than their Caucasian counterparts, and that a disproportionate number of people of color reside in areas with hazardous waste facilities Bullard et al. Sociologists with the project are examining how environmental racism is addressed in the long-term cleanup of the environmental disasters caused by Hurricane Katrina.
Think It Over NIMBY protests occur when concerned citizens band together to speak up against something that will impact them negatively. Which is an example of environmental racism? Show Answer a. Toxic dumps or other objectionable projects The location of schools, libraries, and other cultural institutions Hospitals and other health and safety sites Public transportation options. Licenses and Attributions.These lessons include readings, vocab, quizzes and comprehension questions, as well as topics for discussion and essays.
If you care about our Earth, but find it hard to express your opinions and concerns in English, these pages will help you. The Disappearing Honeybee level: pre-intermediate Did you know that the honey bee is disappearing?
Find out how this could change the world in this lesson. Endangered Species level: intermediate Did you know that the Arctic is warming faster than any other place in the world? Find out what this means for our polar bears in this lesson. Pollution level: upper-intermediate Did you know that pollution causes premature death all over the world? Learn about the main types of pollution and their associated health risks in this lesson. Eco-Communities level: advanced Did you know that building planners and construction companies are "going green" on a global scale?
Learn more about a Canadian eco-community in this lesson. Environment Vocabulary all levels Do you consider yourself an earth activist? Talking about environmental issues is difficult to do in a foreign language.
Home reading environment is crucial for children's reading skills
Learning the following words will help you express your thoughts and concerns in English. Is there anything wrong with this page?The literacy-rich environment emphasizes the importance of speaking, reading, and writing in the learning of all students. This involves the selection of materials that will facilitate language and literacy opportunities; reflection and thought regarding classroom design; and intentional instruction and facilitation by teachers and staff. Reading is a fundamental skill that defines the academic successor failure of students.
Once students reach fourth grade, most of the information they need is given to them in textual format where the focus changes from learning to read, to reading to learn. Therefore, those poor readers may have difficulty interacting with content in the curriculum Higgins, Boone, and Lovitt, Identification of delays or disorders in literacy development typically occurs in the upper elementary grades, but research also indicates that this may be too late for remediation NICHD, Language acquisition and literacy experiences begin at birth.
Students lacking previous experiences with skills such as print awareness, alphabetic principle, and phonemic awareness need supplementary instruction to ensure they do not lag behind their peers. Therefore, elementary school teachers must provide an environment that allows students with disabilities to have access to experiences they may have missed in their preschool years. Research conducted by the National Reading Panel NRP found that skills in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension are essential to literacy development NRP, A literacy-rich environment is a setting that stimulates students with disabilities to participate in language and literacy activities in their daily lives thereby giving them the beginning understandings of the utility and function of oral and written language.
This information brief describes the various elements of a literacy rich environment in an elementary school classroom that provide students in special education access to the general education curriculum. It provides elementary school teachers with information on why a literacy-rich environment is important and how to establish one.
Lists of additional resources are also included to enhance the readers' ability to implement literacy-rich environments. Please note that while this information brief specifically discusses the needs of students with disabilities, particularly those affecting literacy acquisition, the strategies discussed are effective for all children in elementary settings. Imagine walking into an early elementary school classroom and seeing all students immersed in literacy experiences.
Children are engaged in a variety of reading and writing activities while some students are working in groups and others working individually. Students explore books of various genres not just in the library or during reading times, but also in science, math, and social studies. During science, students explore the science literature such as eyewitness books to gain greater knowledge about concepts.
Menu Main menu. Watch TED Talks. Video playlists about Environment The end of oil? It's the question of our generation: Can we find a sustainable alternative to oil? Scientists, inventors and activists present stern warnings and visionary solutions for the energy of tomorrow.
Ocean wonders. Dive into the unexplored universe beneath the waves: the beautiful, fragile and sometimes terrifying world of the ocean. Sustainability by design. Humans are builders and creators—but how can we build thoughtfully, without waste?
These talks explore sustainable design—both past and present—and its beautiful, inspiring results. Natural wonder. What is nature? Follow the camera's eye to many stunning places on the planet -- from the African veldt to the Amazon rainforest to the teeming world under the Arctic ice.
Talks about Environment Victoria Gill What a nun can teach a scientist about ecology Posted Feb Markus Mutz How supply chain transparency can help the planet Posted Jan Colette Pichon Battle Climate change will displace millions. Here's how we prepare Posted Jan Kelsey Leonard Why lakes and rivers should have the same rights as humans Posted Dec Arunabha Ghosh 5 steps for clean air in India Posted Nov Ashwin Naidu The link between fishing cats and mangrove forest conservation Posted Oct To vote on existing books from the list, beside each book there is a link vote for this book clicking it will add that book to your votes.
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Environment plays key role in developing reading skills, study finds
Discover new books on Goodreads. Sign in with Facebook Sign in options. Join Goodreads. Contemporary fiction or non-fiction, how-to guides to green living, ecology tracts from the tree-hugging '70s, and those seminal works that chronicled the first stirrings of the conservation ethic. Rachel Carson. Want to Read saving….
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Alan Weisman. Daniel Quinn. William McDonough. Richard Louv.Children that are seldom read to and whose parents read very little are at a disadvantage when they start school. There is a strong connection between a child's reading environment at home from the time they are very young and the progress a child makes in being able to read once they start school. While many new first grade pupils can already read on their own, others are not even at the point where they understand that letters represent sounds.
We know from the research that it is important that children are well prepared for reading when they start school and will be embarking on formal literacy. This study shows that the parents' attitudes to reading, the number of children's books in the home, the age at which parents start reading aloud to children and how often they read to them all determine how well prepared children are to learn to read when starting school," says Vibeke Bergersen.
Bergersen has written the master's thesis "Kan du lese for meg? A study of pupils' reading skills when starting school viewed in the context of the reading environment at home" [The Department of Education and Sports Science, University of Stavanger, ]. The On Track research project is investigating ways of preventing reading and writing difficulties.
They studied first grade pupils and their parents from 19 schools in Rogaland county, Norway. The pupils were tested in various reading and writing skills when they started school in autumn The parents were asked how often they themselves read, how many children's books they had at home, how often the child was read to and the age of the child when they started reading to the child.
The results of this study clearly showed that the greater significance books have in children's lives from the time they are young, the better prepared they are to learn to read when starting school. Phonological awareness is about being aware of different sounds in language and is important in learning the first letters. Children that are often read to encounter linguistic games or rhymes and jingles in children's books.
In this way, they become more aware of the connection between letters and sounds. By sitting with an adult who is reading books, children become aware of letters and words, and it will be easier for them to read," Bergersen explains.
Reading aloud to a child before the child can speak positively influences the number of words the child learns. It is therefore important to read to children often from an early age.
When starting school, children who have a lot of children's books at home and who have been read to before reaching two years of age have a vocabulary that is almost twice that of children who have few children's books at home and who have only been read to aloud after the age of four years. Children with a large vocabulary understand more of what is going on at school and are better able to keep up with what is being taught. Children with poorer vocabularies understand less, and this can negatively impact their education.
During the school years, the pupils must read as part of learning different subjects. This means that it is very important to have good basic reading skills and a good understanding of written material.